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Guidelines for Authors

Aims and Scope

The Journal of Apicultural Science is a scientific, English-language journal that publishes original research articles , review papers and short communications covering all aspects of the bee life (superfamily Apoidea) and broadly defined apiculture. The main subject areas include:
  • bee biology
  • bee genetics
  • bee breeding
  • pathology and toxicology
  • pollination and bee botany
  • bee products
  • bee management, technologies, and economy
  • solitary bees and bumblebees

Publication options

The Journal of Apicultural Science has been published by the Research Institute of Horticulture and Apicultural Research Association twice a year in the paper and online versions since 2001. The Journal is a continuation of the former scientific periodical “Pszczelnicze Zeszyty Naukowe,” issued from 1957 to 2000. Archive issues of Pszczelnicze Zeszyty Naukowe and issues of the Journal of Apicultural Science published since 2001 to 2011 are available at the original Journal’s website ( Issues published after 2011, are available on the publishers website at paper version is available at (subscriptions).

After acceptance, articles are given DOI numbers, assigned to successive volumes and issues, and published online by Versita (, which has used the open access model since 2012. The Journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

Copyright related to published papers is held by the Research Institute of Horticulture, and the Apicultural Research Association. The non-commercial use of articles is governed by the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs license as currently displayed on All users are free to share (copy, distribute, and transmit the contribution) under the following conditions:
1. they must attribute the contribution in the manner specified by the author/s or licensor/s;
2. they may not use this contribution for commercial purposes;
3. they may not alter, transform, or build upon this work.

The author/s retain/s the following rights:
1. copyright and other proprietary rights relating to the article, such as patent rights;
2. use of the substance of the article in their own future works, including lectures and books;
3. reproduction of the article for their own purposes, provided the copies are not offered for sale;
4. self-archiving of the article.
More information is enclosed in the “License to Publish” form (available at that is signed by author/s before the article is printed.

Submission of manuscripts

  • Manuscripts should be submitted via the Manuscript Editorial System at by the corresponding author, who acts for all authors. To submit your manuscript, you need to register with the Editorial System of the Journal of Apicultural Science with your data including your email and selected password. Your account will be used for future reference. Please follow the instructions displayed on the screen after accessing the website. Along with the manuscript file, which should be prepared in Microsoft Word format, the Release Form must be submitted.
  • Submission of a paper implies that it reports the authors’ own original, unpublished (except in the form of an abstract) work written by the stated author/s, as well as that it has not been accepted and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere in whole or in any part. The author/s warrant/s that the article contains no unlawful statements, does not infringe on the rights of others, and is subject to copyright that is vested exclusively in the author/s and free of any third-party rights, and that any necessary written permissions to quote from other sources have been obtained.
  • All authors must have read the manuscript, and it is understood that they have agreed to its submission, which they must confirm in the Release Form.
  • Any funding or support from commercial, public, or private sources, as well as the role of the parties in the experimental design, analysis, and interpretation of results must be declared by all authors and mentioned in the submitted manuscript (Acknowledgements).

Peer review

  • The Journal of Apicultural Science uses double-blind review so the identity of the authors is concealed from the reviewers, and vice versa.
  • All manuscripts undergo preliminary assessment by the Editorial Board. Those that do not fall within the journal scope, are of insufficient general interest, and/or do not meet the “Guidelines for Authors” and/or acceptable standards of English are returned to the author/s. The remaining manuscripts are assigned to the appropriate Section Editor for evaluation.
  • Each manuscript that passes the preliminary Editorial Board and Section Editor review is evaluated by at least two independent reviewers. The author/s is/are encouraged to suggest reviewer names/affiliations, but the final choice will be made by the Section Editor.
  • Reviewers are invited to return the manuscript with their comments and suggestions within 30 days from receiving the invitation. Based on the reviewers’ opinions, the Section Editor and the Editor-in-Chief decide whether to accept the manuscript, reject it, or send it back to the authors for revision. Both the Editorial Board and reviewers are obliged to keep all unpublished information confidential.
  • If the manuscript is sent back for revision, the author/s should correct it in accordance with reviewer comments. The corrected version should be returned to the Editorial Office as soon as possible but no later than 90 days following receipt of the request for revision. After the 90 daytime point, the manuscript will be considered as a new submission. Along with the revised manuscript, an explanation letter must be submitted that describes how the comments and suggestions were applied or why they were not incorporated.
  • The manuscript revised by author/s is checked by the Section Editor and may be sent for a second review, and both the Section Editor and the Editor-in-Chief make a final decision on acceptance or rejection.
  • Each manuscript is also verified by the Statistical and Language Editor.

Preparation of manuscripts

  • Each manuscript should comply with the “Guidelines for Authors” and be written in clear, concise English. The Editorial Board encourages authors whose native language is not English to have their manuscript checked by a proofreading service or an expert native speaker prior to submission.
  • Each manuscript should be prepared as a Microsoft Word document (.doc, .docx, or .rtf formats are accepted). The manuscript should be typed in Times New Roman (12 point), one-and-a-half-spaced, with margins of 2.5 cm at the top, bottom, and sides. The text should be in single-column format. Headings and sub-headings should be bolded and typed on separate lines and not followed by stops. Only the first letter of a heading/sub-heading and any proper nouns and acronyms it contains should be capitalized (sentence case). Please keep formatting to a minimum. Figures and graphs should be submitted as separate JPG, GIF, TIF, or BMP files. However, graphs prepared in MS Excel should be submitted along with the source data as .xls or .xlsx files. Graphs should be prepared in grayscale.
  • All measurements and data should be given in SI units where possible or in other internationally accepted units. Units of length, weight, and volume should be given in lower case, singular (e.g., kg, mg/mL).Correct units and symbols can be checked at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures webpage The only exception is the temperature which should be given in the degree Celsius (°C).
  • Organisms must be identified by their scientific names (Latin) when the English term is first used. The names should be typed in full when used in the title and when first used in the manuscript. After the first use, the genus designation in the species name should be abbreviated (e.g., A. mellifera).
  • Abbreviations for country names (e.g., USA, UK), all chemical elements, common statistical terms (e.g., ANOVA), and SI units in common use should be used without definition and written without stops. For chemical formulae and techniques, the recommendations of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry should be followed ( All other abbreviations should be explained when they first appear in the text. The use of acronyms should be limited.
  • Use italics only for generic and specific names of organisms, such terms/abbreviations as “ad libitum”, “in vivo”, “in vitro”, and gene names (e.g., Sting-1, Sting-2). The abbreviations “e.g.”, “i.e.”, and “et al.” should not be italicized.
  • Numbers should be generally printed as numerals excluding the beginning of a sentence. A decimal point must always be preceded by a numeral, e.g., “0.5,” and a comma should not be used instead of the decimal point. Probability values should be given as follows: lower case, no italics, no spaces around math symbol, and to 2 or 3 decimal places only (e.g., p = 0.003, p<0.05).

Types and structure of manuscripts

Original Scientific Articles report new and substantial contributions to apiculture science based on original research, and Review Articles provide expert summaries of current knowledge in a particular field.
1. Original Research Article
An original research article should be no longer than 30,000 characters (spaces excluded), including tables and figures, organized in the following order:
  • title
  • running head
  • author/s
  • author affiliation/s
  • abstract
  • keywords
  • introduction
  • material and methods
  • results
  • discussion
  • acknowledgments
  • references
2. Review Article
A review article should not exceed 60,000 characters (spaces excluded) including tables, figures, and photos. The article should cover a clearly defined topic. The manuscript structure can be different from that described for Original Research Papers, but it should contain title, author(s), author affiliation(s), abstract, keywords, and references to the most important papers concerning the topic.

3. Short communication
A short communication reports results of the preliminary nature based on the original research, but only these, which have significant importance for the knowledge covered by the journal scope. They should be of general interest. A short communication should not exceed 6000 characters (spaces excluded) including tables, figures, and photos and all submissions must include ’short communications ’ in the title. The short communication order should be the same as the original article order, but some of the parts may be combined, simplified or omitted if necessary .

Format and style

The paper title should be no longer than 140 characters. It should be brief and clear but descriptive and consistent with the subject. Please avoid abbreviations.
The running head should be a shortened version of the title (up to 45 characters).

Author/s and author affiliation/s
Surnames of author/s are preceded by full first names. If there is more than one first name, an initial (with stops) for the second name is given. On the next line, full names of institutions where the work was done are given. In papers originating from several institutions, the names of the authors are marked with respective superscripts.

Abstract (minimum 150 and not exceeding 250 words) should be in a form suitable for abstracting services. In a single paragraph, it should give the objective of the study and a brief account of the most important results and their significance. No methodological details should be presented, except the names of the organisms involved. The abstract should contain no separate paragraphs or subsections and no footnotes, references, cross-references to figures and tables, or undefined abbreviations.

Keywords derived either from the title or from the main text ought to be informative about the subject and not exceed six words or phrases, both for Original Research Papers and Review Articles. They should be written in lowercase letters, arranged in alphabetical order, and written without prepositions and in the singular if possible.

The Introduction needs to be concise and inclusive of all information needed to understand the subject and the study significance. It should include a review of the most important literature that helps define and place the problem addressed in a wider scientific context. At the end of the Introduction, the objectives should be clearly stated.

Material and Methods
All the protocols, analytical methods, and experimental materials should be described with sufficient clarity to allow replication of the study. If methods are well established and known, the proper articles containing their full descriptions may be cited following a brief sentence.
All vendor details including company, city, and country should be given parenthetically.
All experimental steps referred to in the Material and Methods should be presented in the Results and vice versa.
The Material and Methods should contain a clear description of all statistical analyses, described in a subsection entitled “Statistical analysis.” The database size and structure should be clearly specified so that readers can understand the details of the applied model and particularly determine precisely how data have been analyzed and which units (e.g., individuals, groups) and factors (e.g., years, treatments) of the analysis were used. When the more sophisticated or non-typical mathematical models are used, the relevant formulas/equations should be given and described. Software packages must be identified by name, version, and supplier and properly cited in the “References” .

The Results should be reported very concisely without detailed discussion of data contained in the tables and figures. An emphasis should be put on the main tendencies and findings or the phenomena revealed. The same data must not be simultaneously contained in tables and figures (graphs).
Descriptive statistics of central tendency (e.g., mean, median) should be accompanied by the individual variation measures and a sample size. For instance, an arithmetic mean should be stated in the form mean ± SD (n) [e.g., 45.33 ± 09.56 (n = 12)]. When significant results are presented, p values and the name of the statistical test used should be given. Numerical results should be presented with appropriate accuracy (e.g., means should not be presented to more than one decimal place more than the raw data). In most cases, three significant digits are sufficient. Percentages must indicate the denominator and should not be presented with decimal places unless n>100. The exact test p values should be reported to no more than three decimal places when their values range between 0.001 and 0.05.

The Discussion should state the authors’ interpretations and opinions, explain the implications of the described findings, and make suggestions for future research. Its main function is to answer the questions posed in the Introduction (the objectives), explain how the results support the answers, and explain how the answers fit in with existing knowledge on the topic. Please avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature and overstating conclusions. The last paragraph of the Discussion should present final conclusions.

Please acknowledge any individual/company/institution who contributed to the study and its interpretation or anyone who was involved in drafting the manuscript or revising it. Acknowledgements should be made to persons who do not fulfill the authorship criteria and include acknowledgement of financial and material and technical support.

All references have to be verified against original articles, and authors should check that all references cited in the text are included in the Reference list (and vice versa). The format of the reference must conform to that given below. It is possible to use Zotero’s ( ‘American Psychology Association 6th edition’ citation editing style for simpler formatting adjustment.
  • In the text, refer to author(s) name(s) and year of publication. When there are more than three authors, give the first author’s name followed by et al. References cited together in the text should be arranged chronologically (e.g., Chmielewski, 2005, 2006; Costa et al., 2012; Semkiw & Ochal, 2012; Szymaś, Łangowska, & Kazimierczak-Baryczko, 2012)
  • In the reference list, the references should appear in alphabetical order. If there is more than one author, the order is as follows: publications of a single author in chronological order; publications of the same author with one co-author in chronological order; and publications of the author with more than one co-author in chronological order.
  • Proceedings of articles accepted for publication but not yet published, and personal communications should not appear in the reference list but should be cited in the text as “unpubl. data”.
  • The accuracy of references is the responsibility of authors and references must be verified against the original article.
  • The titles of articles published in languages other than English should be given in their original language.
  • The titles of journals should be given in full and not abbreviated.
  • The references to articles bearing a DOI number must contain the correct numbers.
  • The style and punctuation should follow the format of the examples given below.
    o Article:

    Costa, C., Büchler, R., Berg, S., Bienkowska, M., Bouga, M., Bubalo, D., … Wilde, J. (2012). A Europe-Wide Experiment for Assessing the Impact of Genotype-Environment Interactions on the Vitality and Performance of Honey Bee Colonies: Experimental Design and Trait Evaluation. Journal of Apicultural Science, 56(1), 147–158.
    Frączek, R., Żółtowska, K., & Lipiński, Z. (2009). The activity of nineteen hydrolases in extracts from Varroa destructor and in hemolymph of Apis mellifera carnica worker bees. Journal of Apicultural Science, 53(1), 43–51.
    Semkiw, P., & Skubida, P. (2013). Comb Construction and Brood Development on Beeswax Foundation Adulterated with Paraffin. Journal of Apicultural Science, 57(1), 75–83.

    o Book:

    Morse, R. A., & Nowogrodzki, R. (1990). Honey bee pests, predators, and diseases. New York: Cornell University Press.

    o Chapter in book:

    Shimanuki, H. (1990). Viruses. In Honey bee pests, predators, and diseases. (pp. 12–26). New York: Cornell University Press.

    o Online materials:

    Semkiw, P., & Ochal, J. (2012). Sektor pszczelarski w Polsce w 2012 roku. Retrieved January 8, 2016, from

    o Conference proceedings:

    Bieńkowska, M., Panasiuk, B., Gerula, D., & Węgrzynowicz, P. (2009). Weight of honeybee queens and its effect on the quality of instrumentally inseminated queens. In Proceedings of 41st International Apicultural Congress of Apimondia (p. 135). Montpellier - France.

    o Others:
    Beginning with a code or number:
    PN-88/A-77626. (1998). Miód pszczeli. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Normalizacyjne Alfa.

    Institutional authorship:
    Commission Decision 2002/657/EC of 12 August 2002 implementing Council Directive 96/23/EC concerning the performance of analytical methods and the interpretation of results. (2002). Official Journal L, 221, 8.
Please consult current issues for further examples.

Tables, Figures, and Photos should include only essential data and must not exceed the size of one page, including headings and explanations (footnotes). Figures should not be copied/pasted directly from the statistical software packages but should be properly processed (legends, scale, axes titles, units) before being placed in the manuscripts. Information in tables and figures must not be repeated in the text.
  • Tables require captions, should be accompanied with descriptions, and ought to be self-explanatory; i.e., they should be comprehensible without making references to the main text. Tables must be numbered (Arabic numbers; e.g., Tab. 1) and referenced consecutively in the text by their number (e.g., Tab. 1). Each table heading should be a single sentence, and the wording must be concise and not contain symbols that are not generally known. Use horizontal lines to separate the table from the title and footnotes, and column headings from data. Do not use vertical lines.
  • Figures (drawings, graphs) should be numbered (Arabic numbers) and referenced consecutively in the text by number (e.g., Fig. 1, Fig. 2). The figures should be presented at 300 dpi or greater resolution.
  • Photos should be supplied as JPG or TIF files at 300 dpi resolution or greater, acceptable for Adobe Photoshop Image file format.
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